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名词性从句解题三步走  

2017-04-26 15:45:43|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I、指出下列句子中划线部分在句子中所做的成分。

1. His words are true.                             What he said is true.       

2. The dog sensed something good.             The dog sensed that there was something good nearby.      3. These are his words                           These are what he said     

4. My Maths teacher, Mr He, is a kind person.         The news that the plane had crashed made us sad.     

 

从句必须明白的点:

  1一个句子中有从句,就必须先有主句。

  2)在复合句中,一个句子在句子中做什么成分就是什么从句   

  3)是从句,就一定有引导词(除宾语从句中的that和定语从句中的做宾语的关系代词可省略外)

    

在句子中起名词作用的句子名词性从句 (Noun Clauses 名词性从句的功能相当于名词词组它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词性从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句

 

 

II  画出下列各句中的从句,并指出各从句在句中所作成分。

1. What is needed for the space trip is careful preparation.(    )

2. Her wish is that she can lose weight soon.(     )

3. I think that woman can reach every high achievements in many fields of science.(     )

4. We were very excited at the news that our team had won.(      )

 

1. 根据以上例句对名词性从句的认识,完成下列表格。

名词性从句的种类

 在句中作何成分

在句中所处位置

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. 引导名词性从句的连接词。

 分类

  引导词

        词 义

 引导词在从句中作的成分

 

 连

 接

 词

 

        无词义

       不作成分

 

        是否

       不作成分

 

        是否

       不作成分

 

        好象

       不作成分

 

 连

 接

 代

 

     (无论)什么

    主语、宾语、表语、定语

 

     (无论)哪个

     主语、宾语、表语、定语

 

     (无论)谁

     主语、宾语、表语

 

     (无论)谁

            宾语

 

     (无论)谁的

      主语、表语、定语

 连

 

(无论)如何,(无论)怎样

          状语

 

     (无论)何时

          状语

 

     (无论)哪里

          状语

 

       为什么

          状语

 

 

III练一练:用适当的连接词完成下列句子。

1. You will have to decide ______car we will use, the old one or the new one?

2. You will have to decide ______ we will use the new car for.        

3.  You will have to decide ______ we will use the new car.

4.   The reason is _____ I missed the bus.                          

5.   Could you tell me _____ the nearest hospital is?

6.   I want to know _____ she is looking after.                       

7.   I wonder _____ you will come back.

8.   Could you tell me _____ he mended the radio without any help?       

9.   She looked __________ she were ten years younger.

10.  ----- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.         

    ------Is that _____ you had a few days off?

 

()主语从句 在复合句中充当主语的从句,叫主语从句。

1. 连接词that在主语从句中没实际意义,但是不能省略。

Eg: That he will not not come to the meeting is true.

2. whether可用于引导主从,if不可。

Eg:  Whether he will join us in the discussion is of great importance.

3. 为避免句子头重脚轻,经常用it做形式主语,主语从句在后边做真正的主语。主语从句后的谓语动词一般用单数形式

⑴ It + be + 形容词(strange, natural. true) + that EgIt’s strange that he didn’t come.

⑵ It + be + 名词词组+ that从句(a pity, a shame等)Eg: It’s a pity that he can’t go.

⑶ It doesn’t matter + how/ wether从句Eg: It doesn’t matter wether he will come or not.

⑷ It + be + 过去分词(said, reported,hoped等)+that从句

   Eg: It’s reported that our China team has won.

⑸ It seems / happens + that从句 EgIt happens that I wasn’t there that day.

Ex.1

1. (     ) makes this shop different is that it offers more personal services.

A What  B Who  C Whatever  D Whoever

2. (     ) we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather.

A If     B Whether   C That   D Where

3. It has been proved (     ) eating more vegetable is very important for our health.

A if     B because   C when   D that

 

(二)宾语从句 在复合句中充当宾语的名词性从句,叫宾语从句。

1. whetherif都可以引导宾语从句

  : (1).whether后紧跟or not,不用if.      : I don’t know whether I will stay or not.

     (2).介词后面的宾语从句不能用if.          : I worry about whether I hurt her feeling.

2. 否定转移。动词think, consider, suppose,  believe, expect, guess, imagine… 后的从句若是否  

   意义,须把从句中的否定形式移到主句中。如

   We don’t think you are here. 我们认为你不在这。

   I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他不会这样做。 

3. it作形式宾语 动词find, feel, consider, make, believe等后面有宾语补足语的时候,则需要用it做形式

                    宾语而将that宾语从句后置

  I think it necessary that we take plenty of  water every day .我认为每天多喝水是有必要的

  We all find it important that we (should) make a quick decision about this mater. 

    我们都认为对这件事马上做出决定很重要.              

4. that在宾语从句中一般可以省略,但在以下情况一般不省略。

  (1).在主++it(形式宾语)+宾补+that 从句(真正宾语) 的句型中不省略.

   : We must make it clear that we mean what we say.

  (2).由连接词that引导宾语从句时,that在句中不担任任何成分,在口语或非正式的文体中常被省去,但 

     从句是并列句时,第二个分句前的that不可省。例如: 

     We all think (that ) she is working hard and that she will surely go to a very good university. 

     我们都认为她学习非常努力,一定能进一个非常好的大学。 

5. 注意宾语从句中的时态呼应

  当主句动词是现在时,从句根据自身的句子情况,而使用不同时态。例如: 

  I know (that) he will study English next year. (从句用一般将来时) 

  当主句动词是过去时态(could, would除外),从句则要用相应的过去时态,如一般过去时,过去进行时,  

  过去将来时等;当从句表示的是客观真理,科学原理,自然现象,则从句仍用现在时态。

   如: He says he studies English every day. 

          The teacher told us that Tom had left for America   

6. 在某些动词后的宾语从句中用虚拟语气,其结构为should+动词原形,should 可以省略。这些常用动词是:一个坚决要求insist;         四个要求ask,demand,request,require

             两个命令order,command;      三个建议suggest,advise,propose

 注意:insist有两个意思坚决要求坚持认为,前者用虚拟语气,而后者用陈述语气(实际时态);

  suggest 也有两个意思建议表明”,“暗示,当表示建议讲时用虚拟语气,否则用陈述语气(实际时态)。

    EgShe suggested that she should answer the phone immediately.(虚拟语气)

        The smile on her face suggested that he was satisfied with the result.(陈述语气)

7. 感叹句在宾语从句中的运用 

You can’t imagine ______ when they received these nice Christmas presents.  

A. how they were excited   B. how excited they were    C. how excited were they   D. they were how excited  

 

Ex 2.

1. I’ve got to make_____he told a lie.           

   A.that clear B.it clear that  C.quite clear D.this clear that

2. ____the Smiths will come or not is ____she is worrying about.   

   A.What; that B.Whether; what C.If; that D.How; which

3. It is generally considered unwise to give a child ____ he or she wants.

A. however       B. whatever     C. whichever    D. whenever

4. No one can be sure ____ in a million years.

A what man will look like     B what will man look like

C man will look like what     D what look will man like

5. Mary wrote an article on ____ the team had failed to win the game.

A why    B what    C who     D that

 

 

 

()表语从句  在复合句中充当表语的名词性从句,叫表语从句。放在系动词be, look, seem, remain等之后。

Eg: The fact is that we have lost the game. 事实是我们已经输了这场比赛。

That’s just what I want. 那正是我想要的。

It looks as if it is going to rain. 看上去天要下雨了

1..在表语从句中的that不能省。

2.表语从句只能用whether,而不能用if 引导.

3.当主语是reason时,表语从句要用that引导而不是because

例如: The reason why he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning . 

4. if \ as though, because等引导的表语从句。 

  because 引导表语从句通常只用于“that \ this \ it is \ was because……”结构中。 

  as if \ as though 引导表语从句常置于系动词 look, seem, sound, be, become 等后面,用虚拟语气。 

 Eg. The elephant feels as if \ though it were a wall. 

      I was late for school this morning. That’s because I stayed up late last night. 

    我今天上学迟到了,因为我昨晚熬夜太晚了。 

5. 如果句子的主语是表示命令,建议词suggestion, advice, order等名词时后面引导的表语从句用虚拟语气,should+ 动词原形 should可省略.

Eg. His suggestion is that we (should) climb all the way to the top of the hill. 

 

Ex 3.

1) He  was  late  for  school. That  was ______     he  got  up  late

2) The  reason  why  he  was  late  for  school  is   ____  he  got  up  late.

3) China  isn’t  ____  she  used  to  be

4) The question  is  _____  you  didn’t  do  that  in  time.

 

(四)同位语从句

1. 定义:同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具体内容。 

可用于同位语从句的名词有advicedemanddoubtfacthopeideainformationmessagenewsorderproblempromisequestionrequestsuggestiontruthwishword等。例如:  

Eg. The news that we won the game is exciting. 我们赢得这场比赛的消息令人激动。 

  I have no idea when he will come back home. 我不知道他什么时候回来。 

1连接词that虽在从句中不充当任何成分,但不省略.

2. 有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在说明的名词后面,而被别的词隔开,称作间隔同位语从句。 

Eg. The thought came to him that maybe the enemy had fled the city  他突然想起可能敌人已经逃出城了。 

 3. 同位语从句一般使用陈述语气,但在表示命令,建议,要求,想法等意义的名词后面的that同位语从句中,要用虚拟语气(should + 动词原形 

Eg. He gave us a suggestion that everyone (should) have a map.  

4. 同位语从句和定语从句的区别:  

1)从句的作用不同:同位语从句用来进一步解释说明前面名词的内容

                     定语从句用来修饰、限定前面的名词

  e.g. The news that our team has won the final match is encouraging.

    (从句说明消息的内容:我们队取得了决赛胜利。)

     The news that you told us is really encouraging.

    从句对消息加以限定:是你告诉我们的,而非来自其他渠道。但消息是何内容却不得而知。)

2)引导从句的关联词that的功能不同:that引导同位语从句时是一个单纯的连词,不充当任何成分  

                          而引导定语从句的that关系代词,既指代先行词又须在从句中充当成分

Dad made a promise that he would buy me CD player if I passed the English test. that 不充当任何成分)Dad made a promise that excited all his children.that指代promise,又在从句中充当主语。)

 

Ex 4. 合并句子

1.The fact worries their parents and teachers a lot.

 The fact is that two thirds of all girls in Britain are on a diet.

 

2.We heard the news last night.

 The news was that the British Prime Minister was on a three-day visit in China.

 

3.The view is shared by many British parents.

  The view is that teenagers shouldn’t spend too much time online.

 

4.There is no scientific proof for the idea.

  The idea is that mobile phones stop teenagers from spending money on dresses on cigarettes.

名词性从句解题三步走:第一步:根据表格一的特征判断相应的从句

                                            第二步:根据从句句义结合从句中所缺成分初步确定引导词

                                           第三步:考虑每类从句中的特殊情况确定引导词

灵活运用  一、选择题  

1. _______ makes this shop different is that it offers more personal services.

 A. What   B. Who   C. Whatever     D. Whoever

2. These shoes look very good. I wonder _______.  

A. how much cost they are   B. how much do they cost  

C. how much they cost     D. how much are they cost

3. —Could you do me a favor?  —It depends on _______ it is.

A. which     B. whichever    C. what      D. whatever

4. The way he did it was different ________ we were used to.   

A. in which   B. in what     C. from what      D. from which

5. See the flags on top of the building?  That was _______ we did this morning.  

A. when           B. which          C. where           D. what

6. Some researchers believe that there is no doubt ________ a cure for AIDS will be found.

   A. which        B. that      C. what       D. whether

7. Doris' success lies in the fact _______ she is co-operative and eager to learn from others.

 A. which     B. that        C. when       D. why  

二、连词填空 用适当的连词填空, 并指出从句的类型。

1. One day, he came up with an idea _____he would pluck up all of his crop a few inches. He did so the next day.

2. ...when I realized that the villagers who had gathered around me were arguing as to ______ should have the honour of receiving me as a guest in their house.

3. I want to be liked and loved for _____ I am inside.

4. Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel, David Copperfield, was _____ it was rather closely modeled on his own life.

6. Cindy shut the door heavily and burst into tears. No one in the office knew ____ she was so angry.

7. — I prefer shutting myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays. — That’s _____I don’t agree. You should have a more active life.

8. — Have you finished the book?       —  No. I’ve read up to  ______the children discover the secret cave.

9. It never occurred to me ____ you could succeed in persuading him to change his mind.

10. Before the sales start, I make a list of _____ my kids will need for the coming season.

11. How much one enjoys himself travelling depends largely on _____ he goes with, whether his friends or relatives.

12. Thank you for ____ you’ve said, I hope I will never be too busy to help others.

13. ...and also the bike was used to get groceries, saving us from having to walk long distances from _____ we live.

 

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