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高中英语语法之动词过去分词  

2017-05-31 15:38:21|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 过去分词的构成形式
规则动词的过去分词一般是由动词ed构成(具体规则见后)不规则动词的过去分词不规则动词表

1 过去分词构成规则
1 、规则动词:规则动词的过去分词的构成规则与规则动词的过去式的构成规则相同。四点变化规则:
 (1)、一般动词,在词尾直接加“ ed ” work---worked---worked ,visit---visited---visited
 (2)、以“ e ”结尾的动词,只在词尾加“ d ” live---lived---lived ,
 (3)、以辅音字母 + y ”结尾的动词,将 "y" 变为 "i" ,再加“ ed ”

                                          study---studied---studied ,cry---cried---cried ,
 (4)重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母,先双写该辅音字母,再加“ ed ” 
                                         stop---stopped---stopped , drop---dropped--dropped
2 不规则动词,见不规则表

 过去分词的用法

I、过去分词作为表语

    过去分词作表语,位于系动词后,表示主语的状态、特点或思想感情等

             (常见系动词有:1. 系动词be(是……)

                            2. 表感官的系动词。如:look, soundtaste, smell, feel,seem, appear

                            3. 表变化的系动词。如:become, get, turn, grow, come, go, fall等。

                            4. 表持续的系动词。如:remain, keep, stay等。

    1)He was pleased at what I said.    2)She looked very worried.     3)My glasses are broken.

 

【注意1】过去分词作表语与被动语态的区别:过去分词作表语,主要是表示主语的状态,

                                       被动语态则表示动作.
 (1) The cup was broken by my little sister yesterday. 茶杯是昨天我小妹打碎的.(是被动语态,表示动作)
 (2) The library is now closed. 图书馆关门了.(过去分词作表语
【注意2】过去分词作表语表示感到……之意        I am interested in the book.

       现在分词作表语表示令人感到……之意     The book is very interesting.

      英语中这样的分词还有很多, 如:

exciting     令人兴奋的        excited感到兴奋的astonishing令人惊讶的    astonished感到惊讶的

amazing     令人震惊的       amazed感到震惊的pleasing令人高兴的       pleased感到高兴的

tiring  令人厌烦的            tired感到厌烦的   satisfying令人满意的      satisfied 感到满意的

shocking 令人震惊的          shocked感到震惊的boring 令人无聊的        bored感到无聊的

interesting 令人感兴趣的    interested感兴趣的surprising 令人惊讶的        surprised感到惊讶的

amusing 令人高兴的    amused感到高兴的   encouraging令人鼓舞的  encouraged感到鼓舞的

disappointing令人失望的 disappointed感到失望的 puzzling/confusing令人困惑的 puzzled/confused感到困惑的

 

巩固练习:用括号内单词的适当形式填空。

 1.interestA. Nobody was __________ in the story he told.

              B. The story he told was very ___________.   

 2. (excite )    A. Everybody was ________ to hear the news.

              B. The news is very __________ indeed.

 3. (disappoint )A. The result of the test was rather ______________.

              B. He was very _____________ at the result of the test.

4. ( amuse )     A. What he said was very ____________.

               B.  I was very ___________ at the sight.

         
二、过去分词作为定语 

定语名前后,短前长后(单个的过去分词作定语,一般放在被修饰名词的前面;过去分词短语作定语时,则放在被

                          修饰名词的后面。)

分词作定语,被分词修饰的名词就是分词的逻辑主语

过去分词作定语,分词与逻辑主语构成动宾/被动关系

1....when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera.

2. So many thousands of terrified people died.

3.From the stomach the disease quickly attacked the body and soon the affected person died.

4.He found that it came from the river polluted by the dirty water from London.

5. He immediately told the astonished people ...

6...John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the germs.

7. The water companies were instructed not to expose people to polluted water any more.

注意1

1)及物动词的过去分词做定语,分词与逻辑主语构成动宾/被动关系,表示动作已完成.

2) 不及物动词的过去分词做定语,分词与逻辑主语没有被动意义,只表示动作的完成.

 boiled water (开水)   fallen leaves (落叶)  the risen sun     (升起的太阳)

注意2过去分词短语有时也可用作非限制性定语,前后常有逗号.
The meeting, attended by over five thousand people, welcomed the great hero.

    他们举行了欢迎英雄的大会,到会的有五千多人.

注意3 用来修饰人的过去分词有时可以转移到修饰非人的事物,这种过去分词在形式上虽不直接修饰人,但它所修饰的事物仍与人直接有关.
       The boy looked up with a pleased expression. 男孩带着满意的表情举目而视.

 

巩固练习:用括号内单词的适当形式填空。

1.I was the first Western TV reporter________ (permit) to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild.

2.There are many common methods ________(use) to cook fish.

3.To return to the problem of water pollution , Id like you to look at a study ________ (conduct)in Australia in 2012.

4.A great number of students _________ (question) said they were forced to practise the piano.

 

三、过去分词作为状语

状语用来修饰动词、形容词、副词, 或整个句子。可位于句首、句中或句末。一般表示行为发生的时间、地点、目的、方式、程度等

过去分词作状语归纳:

1.过去分词作状语,位于句首、句中或句末。注意标点符号:分词作状语时,都和句子用隔开,位于句首,一个,位于句末,一个,位于句中,两个

2.过去分词作状语,表示被动的和完成的动作句子的主语就是分词的逻辑主语,分词与逻辑主语构成动宾/被动关系.

1. Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days.

2.Well-known for their expertise, his parents' company... transported me safely into the future...

3.Hit by a lack of fresh air,my head ached.

4.The professor went into the classroom, followed  by his students.

5.The professor,followed by his students,went into the classroom


【注意1如果过去分词作状语时,前面再加逻辑主语,主句的主语就不再是分词的逻辑主语,这种带逻辑主语的过去分词结构实际上属于独立主格结构.
 (1) The signal given, the bus started. 信号一发出,汽车就开动了.(the signal given 的逻辑主语,因此主句主语 the  

                                                               bus 就不是given 的逻辑主语.
 (2) Her head held high, she went by. 她把头昂得高高地从这儿走了过去.(her head held high 的逻辑主语,因此主

                                                              句主语 she 就不再是held high 的逻辑主语.)
【注意2状语从句改成过去分词作状语时有时还可保留连词,构成"连词+过去分词"结构作状语. 
When given a medical examination, you should keep calm. 当你做体格检查时要保持镇定.

巩固练习:用括号内单词的适当形式填空。

1________ (order) over a week ago, the books are expected to arrive any time now.

2. _______(offer)an important role in a new movie, Andy has got a chance to become famous.

3 ________(beat) out of the house, the lion felt 10 _______(depress) and died soon.

4.If ________(accept)for the job, you'll be informed soon.

5.________(absorb)in painting, John didn't notice evening approaching.

6.Clearly and thoughtfully________(write)the book inspires confidence in students who wish to seek their own answers.

 

四、过去分词作为宾语补足语

宾补归纳:主谓宾结构完整,句意不完整,就得在宾语后面加词补充说明宾语的情况,被加的词就是宾补,宾补位于宾语后

1. I think the job easy.

2. We make him monitor.

3. I saw a boy crying over there.

4. We heard someone go into the room.

5. My mother allows me to watch TV after I finish my homework.

 

过去分词作宾补归纳:

1.过去分词作宾语补足语,位于(某些vt+宾语+宾补结构中)宾语后

2.过去分词作宾语补足语,分词前面的宾语为其逻辑主语,分词与逻辑主语构成动宾/被动关系.

1.She found the door broken in when she came back.

2.He kept the door locked for a long time.

3.I have my hair cut.

4.Now when people refer to England you find Wales included as well.

5.You find most of the population settled in the south


 

 能够接过去分词作宾补的动词和介词有以下四类:
1. 表示感觉或心理状态的动词.:see, watch, observe, look at, hear, listen to, feel, notice, think

                            watch/ notice/ see/ hear/ listen to / feel /find + n. /pron. + p.p

(1) I heard the song sung in English.

    我听到有人用英语唱过这首歌.(过去分词sung的动作显然先于谓语动作heard;) 

(2)He found his hometown greatly changed.

他发现他的家乡变化很大.(过去分词changed的动作显然先于谓语动作found)

2. 表示"致使"意义的动词.:have, make, get, keep, leave.

                         make/have /get/keep /leave  + n. /pron. + p.p
     (1) I'll have my hair cut tomorrow. 明天我要理发.
     (2) He got his tooth pulled out yesterday. 他昨天把牙拔了.
     (3) Don't leave those things undone. 要把那些事情做完.

3..表希望、要求、命令爱憎?意愿等的动词:likewantwishexpectorder等。

                        like / want / wish / expect / order + n. /pron. + p.p

   (1) I wanted two tickets reserved. 我要预定两张机票。  (2) He didn’t wish it mentioned. 他不愿这事被提起。

4 介词:withwithout   with/without + n. /pron. + p.p

     The thief was brought in with his hands tied behind his back.

      With many flowers planted around the building, his house looks like a beautiful garden.
【注意1使役动词have接过去分词作宾补有两种情况.

1. 过去分词所表示的动作由他人完成. He had his money stolen.他的钱给偷了.(被别人偷去了)
2. 过去分词所表示的动作由句中的主语所经历.: He had his leg broken.他的腿断了. (自己的经历)
【注意2"with +宾语+过去分词"的结构

 此结构中,过去分词用作介词 with的宾语补足语.这一结构通常在句中作时间,方式,条件,原因等状语

 (1) The murderer was brought in, with his hands tied behind his back. 凶手被带进来了,他的双手被绑在背后.(表方式

(2) With water heated, we can see the steam. 水一被加热,我们就会看到水蒸气.(表条件

(3) With the matter settled, we all went home. 事情得到解决,我们都回家了.(表原因

(4) She stood in front of him, with her eyes fixed on his face. 她站在他面前,眼睛注视着他. 

(5) He stood for an instant with his hand still raised. 他仍然举着手站了一会儿.

巩固练习:用括号内单词的适当形式填空。
1.In art criticism, you must assume the artist has a secret message________(hide) within the work.

2. Claire had her luggage _______ (check) an hour before her plane left.

3. Alexander tried to get his work _________ (recognize) in the medical circles.

 

学习分词的核心问题  找分词的逻辑主语是学习分词的核心问题。一般有以下规律:

                   分词(短语)作定语,逻辑主语就是被分词所修饰的名词或代词;

                                   作状语,逻辑主语一般是句子的主语(但独立主格结构除外);

                                   作表语,逻辑主语就是句子的主语;

                                   作宾语补足语,逻辑主语就是宾语。

分词的语态形式怎么决定?找到分词的逻辑主语后,我们通过分析分词(短语)与逻辑主语之间的在逻辑上构成主动关系还是被动关系(即动宾关系)来选用分词的语态形式,即:

主动关系用现在分词 Ving

被动关系则有三种可能——用过去分词 PP   

                        用现在分词一般式的被动形式 being done

                        用现在分词的被动完成式     Having  been done

分词的时态形式怎么决定?由于过去分词因时态形式单一(只有一般式而没有完成式)而不需要我们研究,所以这里我们主要是弄清楚如何选用现在分词的时态形式。到底如何选用现在分词的时态形式呢?答案是:通过分析现在分词所表示的动作与主要动词所表示的动作之间的先后顺序来决定选用分词的时态形式。即:如果现在分词所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作是同时发生的行为则用现在分词的一般式;如果现在分词所表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生则用现在分词的完成式。

例如:

Seeing the nationl flag rising in the sky, we all cheered..(语态用主动形式;时态用一般式)

②The question being discussed is important. (语态用被动形式;时态用一般式;)

Asked why he was late for class, he kept silent. (语态用被动形式;时态用一般式)

Having studied in the university for 3 years, he knows the way very well.(语态用主动形式;时态用完成式)

Having been criticized by the teacher, Li Ming gave up smoking. (语态用被动形式;时态用完成式)

 

现在分词与过去分词的区别

语态不同:现在分词表示主动概念,及物动词的过去分词表示被动概念。例如:

an inspiring speech(鼓舞人心的演说)the inspired audience(受鼓舞的听众)

时间关系不同:现在分词所表示的动作一般是正在进行中的动作,而过去分词所表示的动作往往是已经完成的动作

例如: the changing world(正在发生变化的世界)the changed world(已经起了变化的世界)

 

非谓语动词强化练习
 1. Mr. Smith, _______ of the ________ speech, started to read a novel.
   A. tired; boring    B. tiring; bored     C. tired; bored    D. tiring; boring
 2. On getting to the kindergarten, the mother was glad to see her baby well _________.
   A. looked for     B. cared for     C. take care of    D. cared after
 3. Let’s have a rest. The _______ work made me very ________.
   A. tired; tired    B. tiring; tiring      C. tired; tiring     D. tiring; tired
 4. Just as the value of a telephone network increases with each new phone _________ to the system, so does the value of a computer system increase with each program that turns out.
   A. adding     B. to have added      C. to add     D. added
 5. As we all know, newspapers, magazines and radios as well as television broadcasts can keep us   

   ______ about what is happening in the world.
   A. informing     B. to inform      C. informed      D. being informed
 6. Everyone was ________ by his _______ progress which he made during the two months.
   A. surprised; surprise    B. surprised; surprised  C. surprised; surprising   D. surprising; surprising
 7. When he turned around, he found a pair of eyes _________ him.
   A. looking      B. watch at     C. fixing on     D. staring at
 8. After _______ his work, the teacher came to help me with my English.
   A. finished     B. being finished     C. having finished     D. be finishing
 9. Follow the directions on the bottle carefully when __________the medicine.
   A. you will take        B. taking       C. to take      D. taken
 10. The students, ________ their teachers, came home.
   A. followed      B. follow      C. following      D. will follow  www.ks5u.com
 11. The long-lasting war, filled with blood and deaths, ended in people’s sadness, __ no result.     

   A. reached     B. to reach      C. would reach     D. reaching
 12. They spent the night _________ in the room.
   A. having locked      B. locking     C. to be locked      D. locked
  13. Steven has devoted all his life to _______ films, and Kate, his wife, is also ________ to the duty of her profession. A. make; devoted      B. making; devoting   C. making; devoted    D. make; devoting
  14. The film, ___ true story of this Red Army general, attracted people’s interest all over the country.
   A. is based on               B. is on the base of    C. which is the base of        D. based upon
 15. She returned home from the market only to find the door open and a number of things_______.
   A. stole     B. missing      C. missed         D. losing
  16. _________ with yours, our library is _________ too small a size.
   A. Comparing; in          B. Comparing; of         C. Compared; in           D. Compared; of
 17. It’s dangerous to carry a hot pan with ________ oil.
   A. burning       B. burnt          C. burn       D. burns
  18. ________ in the forest, he had to ask for help by sending out signals.
   A. Having lost      B. Losing       C. Lost      D. He was lost
 19. The Golden Gate Bridge, ________ several hundred years ago, is worldwide famous.
   A. which is built     B. which built       C. having built     D. built
 20. __________ at failing in the maths exam, John wouldn’t like to talk about it to his parents.
   A. Disappointed          B. To be disappointed      C. Disappointing         D. Having disappointed
 21. _________ in the dark cave, he was not afraid of being found by ________ enemy soldiers.
   A. Hidden; armed           B. Hide; armed         C. hidden; arm             D. Hiding; armed
   22. If _______ in wet sand, the vegetables can_______ fresh for a long time.
   A. being buried; remain       B. buried; remain     C. buried; be remained        D. burying; remain
 23. _______ from the moon, our earth, with water _____ seventy percent of its surface, appears as a “ blue ball”. A. Seen; covered     B. seeing; covering     C. Seen; covering     D. To see; to cover
  24. From the dates_____ on the gold coin, we decided that it was made five hundred years ago.   

A. marking              B. marked       C. to be marked          D. having been marked
 25. Hearing the good news, I felt a heavy load ________ my mind.
   A. taking off     B. to be taken off    C. having taken off     D. taken off
  26. The scientist came to the meeting with his wife ________ him.
   A. being supported    B. supporting     C. supported     D. support
  27. The sale usually takes place outside the house, with the audience _____ on benches, chairs, or boxes.       A. having seated      B. seating       C. seated        D. seat
  28. The president promised to keep all the board members _________ of how the negotiations were going on.    A. inform         B. informing          C. be informed      D. informed
 29. ________ with a difficult situation, Arnold decided to ask his boss for advice.
   A. To face      B. Having faced    C. Faced      D. Facing
  30. When first _________ to the market, these products enjoyed great success.
   A. introducing          B. introduced          C. introduce            D. being introduced
 31. It shames me to say it, but I told a lie when _________ at the meeting by my boss.
   A. questioning        B. having questioned         C. questioned         D. to be questioned
  32. The disc, digitally ________ in the studio, sounded fantastic at the party. www.ks5u.com
    A. recorded     B. recording    C. to be recorded      D. having recorded
 33. ____ by the beauty of nature, the girl from London decided to spend anther two days on the farm.
    A. Attracting     B. Attracted     C. To be attracted    D. Having attracted
  

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