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英语动词的时态和语态  

2017-06-23 16:24:50|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 用括号中的单词的适当形式完成下列句子

Part 1

1.He ____________(go) to school  by car every day while we ____________(go) to school by bike every day.

2.He __________ (go) to the park with his parents yesterday. 

3. He __________ (go) to the park with his parents tomorrow.

4. He said he____________ (go) to the park with his parents the next day.

5.Now,I _________(do)my homework, my sister_________(draw) a picture,and my parents ____________(watch)TV.

6. This time yesterday, I ____________(do)my homework, my sister____________  (draw) a picture,and my parents ____________(watch)TV.

7.He____________(live) in Zhuhai for ten years.

8.We ______________(learn)3500 words so far.

9. He said he ____________(live) in Zhuhai for ten years.

Part2

1.A lot of water __________ (waste) every year.

2.A new bridge ___________(build) over the river last year.

3.His new book ______________ (finish) next year.

4.He said his new book _____________ (finish)the next year.

5.The Opera House in Zhuhai _____________ (build) now.

6.A new library _____________ (build) here this time last year.

7. So far, my homework _________________ (finish).

8.He said his homework _________________ (finish).

9.Now many kinds of work can____________(do) by robots.

Think:

1 这些动词都在以上句子中做何成分?

2 如何判断是用主动语态还是用被动语态?

 

时态

 

    主动语态的构成(do)

 

  被动语态的构成(be+done)

一般现在时

 

 

一般过去时

 

 

一般将来时

 

 

过去将来时

 

 

现在进行时

 

 

过去进行时

 

 

现在完成时

 

 

过去完成时

 

 

含情态动词

 

 

动词的时态、语态与语法填空

所给提示词为动词, 如果句中缺少谓语动词,并确定所给动词要填为谓语动词,就要考虑时态和语态。

活学活用

1、In 1492,Columbus ______ (land ) on one of the Bahama Islands,but he mistook it for an island off India.

2、His first novel ____________ (receive) good reviews since it came out last month.

3、We arrived at work in the morning and found that somebody _________ (break)into the office during the night.

4、Planning so far ahead _________ (make)no sense—so many things will have changedby next year.

5、Did you predict that many students_______________(sign) up for the dance competition?

6、In the near future,more advances in the robot technology _______________(make) by scientists.

7、In the last few years thousands of films_____________________ (produce) all over the world.

8 .After getting lost in a storm,a member of the navy team __________________(rescue) four days later.

9. People say that a smile can ____________ (pass) from one person to another, but acts of kindness from strangers are even more so.

10. The meeting ______________(hold) tomorrow.

11. All the tickets _______________(sell) out when they rushed there.

思路点拨 当句中缺少谓语动词时,括号中的动词就是谓语动词。此时要考虑时态、语态、语气、主谓一致等四个方面。

1.时态  确定时态的四条依据:

(1)依据上下文时态一致。看上下文谓语动词是什么时态(过去/现在/将来),空格要填的动词时态一般应与上下文的时态一致。但需注意:客观事实或真理可能时态不一致;直接引语的时态会与引号外的时态不一致。

(2)依据并列谓语动词的时态一致。

While making great efforts to run away, she _____ (fall) over the hill and died.

(3)依据时间状语。

如recently, so far, up to now, up to the present, in the past few years,  by the end of, since 1980, for three years常与现在完成时连用;              

(4)依据固定句式。请熟读以下句式并体会句中的时态。

This is the second time that I have spoken to a foreigner.这是我第二次同外国人讲话

It was the second time that I had spoken to a foreigner. 这是我第二次同外国人讲话。

Hardly had I got on the bus when it started to move. 我一上公交车,就开动了。

I had no sooner lain down than the telephone rang.我刚躺下,电话铃就响了。

I was doing my homework when she suddenly walked in.我正在做作业,突然她走了进来。

I was about to do my homework when she suddenly walked in.我正要做作业,突然她走了进来。

I was on the point of going out when the phone rang.我正要出去,电话响了。

2.语态  主语是谓语动词的执行者,即谓语动词与主语在逻辑上是主动关系,用主动语态;主语是谓语动词的承受者,即谓语动词与主语在逻辑上是动宾关系,用被动语态。如:… but the man at the front desk said there had been a mistake. We  __________(tell) that our rooms hadn’t been reserved for that week…

3.语气  是否用虚拟语气,主要由一些特殊的词或句式来决定

Mary will never forget the first time she saw him. He suddenly appeared in class one day, wearing sunglasses. He walked in as if he ______ ____(buy) the school. And the word quickly got around that he was from New York City.

4. 主谓一致 一般来说,主语是单数,谓语动词用单数; 主语是复数,谓语动词用复数。

Being too anxious to help an event develop often _______ (result) in the contrary to our intention.

考点练透

1.He sold or exchanged some of the milk in the towns nearby for other food and made cheese and butter for the family with what ________ (leave).

2.  Suddenly, he ______ (find) that he had run out of salt. So Nick called to his son, “Go to the village and buy some salt…”

3. I noticed a man sitting at the front. He ____________  (pretend) that a tiger toy was real and giving it a voice.

4“Your father has at last decided to stop smoking, ” Jane _______ ________ (inform).

5.In the last few years, China __________ (make) great achievements in environmental protection.

6.I __________(hear) nothing from him up to now.

7.He ____________(think) about the problem when an apple fell to the ground.

8.This is the first time that our whole class __________ (go) out together for a picnic.

9.There was a knock at the door. It was the second time someone _____________ (interrupt) me that evening.

10.Hardly had the game begun when it  ________ (start) raining.

11.It is reported that a space station _____ _____(build) on the moon in years to come.

12.If only I _____________(listen) to my parents at that time! But it’s too late now.

13.But for your help we _________ ______ (be) late.

14.The Gadfly insisted that the work  _________________ (finish) by the middle of June.

体验高考

1.Suddenly, he       ______ ( find ) that he had run out of salt.

2. He walked in as if he ____________(buy) the school.

3. He_____________(pretend) that a tiger toy was real and giving it a voice.

4. Besides, shopping at this time of the year was not a pleasant experience:people stepped on your feet

  or_____________(push)you with their elbows(肘部), hurrying ahead to get to a bargain.

5. After a four-day journey, the young man_____________  ( present ) the water to the old man.

6. Being too anxious to help an event develop often__________(result) in the contrary to our intention.

7. The sun was setting when my car _____________(break) down near a remote and poor village.

8. Her mother was excited. “Your father has at last decided to stop smoking, ”Jane_____________ (inform).

动词的时态、语态与短文改错

动词的时态、语态在短文改错中的错误设置主要表现在:

1. 短文中时态的使用前后不一致

⑴  上下文的谓语动词都是过去时,突然出现一个现在时。如:

She used to hold me… I was only four when she passes away.

⑵  上下文的谓语动词都是现在时,突然出现一个过去时。如:

Since then, we had been allowing tomatoes to self-seed where they please. As a result, the plants are growing

 everywhere.

2.要注意在平行结构中,动词形式的一致性,即“平行一致”。如在A and B或A, B and C中,A, B, C的形式要一致。如:

…both of them have similar ideas and trusting each other

She liked it very much and reads it to the class. All said the story was...

At once I apologize and controlled myself...

3.主谓一致

⑴ 行为动词:主语是第三人称单数时,行为动词的一般现在时,其后加s。可记作:一般现在时,三单加s。主语不是第三人称单数时,一般现在时用原形,过去时一般加ed。如:

My dream school look like a big garden.

⑵ have动词:主语是第三人称单数时,have的现在时(一般现在时,现在完成时,现在完成进行时)用has。主语不是第三人称单数时,现在时用have,过去时用had。

Li Ming, together with his parents, have gone abroad by now.

⑶ be动词:主语是第三人称单数时,be的现在时(一般现在时,现在进行时)用is,过去时(一般过去时,过去进行时)用was。主语是I,用am或was;主语是you或复数,用are或were。如:

…the only clothes I had was those I had on.

4.主动语态和被动语态的混用,主要错误表现在多用be或少用be

Last summer,I invited to take part in the camp…

Before her leaving , I was prepared a gift to show my best wishes to her.

5多用be或少用be,切记:作谓语的是行为动词时,如果不是进行时态或被动语态,不用be;如果句中谓语没有动词,但汉语意思又完整了时,要用be。如:

Suddenly the arrows were flying down at us from the sky—they were looked like rain!

My best friend, Aigulie, was used to share her Nang with me.

So real friendship should able to stand all sorts of tests.

I very busy now

At that time, we in the classroom.

灵活运用

1.I'll never forget the days which I spend with my friends in New York.

2.You did say that you will lend me some money yesterday.

3.Great changes have been taken place in my hometown since 1990.

4.Look! The dogs are trained to help the blind to cross road.  

5.By the time I got back, they have finished the scene.

体验高考

1.When I was a child, I hoped to live in the city. I think I would be happy there.

2.Yet it seemed water is becoming less and less.

3.Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become.......

4.A woman saw him crying and telling him to wait outside a shop.

5. I was taking a train to London’s Victoria Station. I had noticed that the carriage was noisy and filled with people.  

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